Each new fire fighter shall be tested for a qualitative fit. The mask shall be used with a complete SCBA under the following conditions.
A. If the fire fighter has successfully completed Wisconsin Fire Fighter I Certification, no restriction on SCBA use is in effect.
B. Before completion of Fire Fighter I, Part I, the SCBA will be used in training sessions only, under the direction of fire department officer.
3.02 - Fire Department Role:
Based on current position descriptions, types of emergency alarm responses, type of training and care provided by other agencies, the Town of Greenville Fire Department does not provide emergency medical care as the primary first responders. Fire department personnel should not expose themselves to patient body fluids unless properly trained, issued preventative protective equipment and offered appropriate immunization. Fire fighters or support staff on the scene of emergency, where patients exist shall not touch contaminated doming, EMS equipment or any potentially contaminated items. Although direct contact should never occur, the fire fighters shall wear complete firefighting protective clothing, including impervious gloves and face shields. In non-fire situations, latex gloves will be provided to wear under normal firefighting gloves.
3.03 - Accidental Exposure
If your protective clothing should, be an act of someone else, become exposed to body fluids, immediately remove it and place it in a plastic bag. Inform the safety officer of the incident and turn all contaminated clothing into the safety officer.
3.04 - Incident Exposure Record
Immediately after any incident where a patient \vas known to or suspected of having a contagious disease, the fire fighter shall complete an Occurrence Report and submit the document to the safety officer for further analysts. These records shall be kept on file for at least the duration of the fire fighters employment plus thirty years.
3.05 - Non-Consensual Testing
According to the 1992 Wisconsin Act 269, Section 968.38, fire fighters may request a non-consensual test for patients suspected of having HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The purposes of the test are an attempt to identify the patient is currently a carrier of such diseases. If the patient's test identifies the existence of HBV, HIV or other sexually transmitted diseases; Sections (f) (3), (f) (4), and (f) (5) of OSHA Standard 29 CFR Part 1910.1030 shall be followed.((NOT CURRENT LAW)))
3.06 - Change in Response
In the future if the Town of Greenville begins involvement in patient exposure and emergency medical response, the fire department will comply with local, state and national guidelines or requirements related to precautionary guidelines.
3.07 - Protective Clothing
When appointed to the Department, you were issued your protective doming, it is the responsibility of the member to maintain his/her clothing in proper working conditions. If clothing is damaged or missing, it must be reported immediately to the officer in charge of protective clothing for repair or replacement. Protective clothing shall not be abused or used for uses not approved of or for non-departmental uses. Protective clothing is mandatory for all fire suppression/rescue operation. Modification of this policy can be made by the officer in charge based on known facts or the situation. All protective clothing shall be donned prior to doing any activity at scenes. The adjustments to SCBA straps may be done enroute to the scene only after the seat belt has been properly secured.
A. When responding emergency, full protective clothing will be worn by all personnel with the exception of your helmet. The driver may elect to not wear his/her gear if it obstructs his/her driving ability.
B. When riding in the apparatus, and not responding to an alarm, firefighting protective clothing is optional.Each individual will be held accountable for properly utilizing personal protective equipment. The company officer will enforce the guidelines.
3.08 - Standard Equipment Issuance
Fire fighters shall be issued the following department equipment:
- One Helmet
- One Nomex Protective Hood
- One Nomex Turn-Out Coat
- One Pair of Protective Gloves
- One Pair Bunker Pants
- One Pair of Boots
- One Pager with Charger
- One Set Standard Operating Guidelines
- One Pair of Latex Gloves
- One SCBA Face Shield
- One Pair Safety Glasses
If fire fighters purchase equipment for use on this Department, all equipment must be approved for such use by appropriate agencies such as N.F.PA, O.S.H.A., U.L., eta All equipment must be purchased so as to provide continuity with existing Department equipment. Written permission and authorization to purchase such equipment must be granted by Fire Chief or his designee.
3.09 - Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBAs)
The use of SCBAs on this Department is mandatory during fire suppression/rescue operations or where any atmosphere may be actually or suspected toxic in nature. This includes, but is not limited to: structure fires (including overhaul), hazardous material spills, rescues where fires and/or explosions may result, CO calls when needed and confined space rescues. Water rescues are exempt from the SCBA and protective clothing requirements. This is a guideline for managing our SCBA air levels when working in an IDLH environment. Running out of air is one of the critical factors in firefighter line of duty deaths. This guideline will help to reduce the chances of firefighters running out of air and having the need to call a MAYDAY while working in an IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health) environment. This guideline is intended to be used for training as well as during emergency responses. The goal of this guideline is to ensure that the firefighters exit an IDLH environment before their low air alarm sounds, and getting to the point of no return. This gives them reserve air should something go wrong while exiting. When a low air alarm is heard on the fire ground, firefighters should respond as if someone is in trouble.
Air Management - An ongoing assessment of air consumption by individual firefighters and/or teams who are breathing air from their SCBA. Firefighters in a hazardous atmosphere must continually check their pressure gauges and monitor the Heads-up Display to know how much air they have left in their bottle.
The Rule of Air Management - Know how much air you have used, and manage the amount of air you have left in your bottle so that you leave the hazardous atmosphere before your SCBA low-air warning bell begins to ring.
Hazardous Atmosphere - Any atmosphere which is oxygen deficient or which contains a toxic and/or disease producing contaminant. These atmospheres can be immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH).
Point of No Return - In an IDLH atmosphere when the team stops becoming part of the solution, and is now part of the problem. Intervention resources may be needed that might otherwise be directed to the incident.
R.E.A.D.Y. Check - This is an easy-to-remember model that covers key elements needed for entry into IDLH atmospheres.
R – Radio is on, turned to the correct channel, and each member knows to whom he/she is reporting.
E – Equipment is appropriate for the assigned duties.
A – Air for each member is checked prior to entering an IDLH
D – Duties and objectives are known by each member.
Y – Yes! If the answer to all the above is affirmative… the team is READY to enter the hazardous atmosphere.
All firefighters utilizing SCBA need to take responsibility for the management of their own air supply, and shall adhere to the following recommendations:
- Check air levels before entering the hazardous atmosphere. Members must have a minimum of 2216 psi in their SCBA cylinders in order to make entry into an IDLH environment. Perform the R.E.A.D.Y. Check, and locate a secondary means of egress.
- Follow the rule of air management when operating in any IDLH environment.
- When the first member of any team has their 50% capacity (1108 psi) heads up display (HUD) light activate (2 flashing amber lights), that member shall inform their officer who will radio the Incident Commander or Operations Officer that the team has 50% air left. This allows for the planning to replace that team in the IDLH environment.
- If a team member works into their reserve air and their low air warning bell begins ringing in the IDLH environment, then that teams officer shall report over the radio to the Incident Commander or Operations Officer their unit number, location, that a team member’s low air alarm is sounding with an estimation of how close they are to an exit.
- Air Management is each firefighter’s responsibility and is closely related to situational awareness. Firefighters must make sure that they have a full SCBA air cylinder before they enter an IDLH environment. Once inside the IDLH environment, firefighters must look at their air cylinder pressure gauges and heads-up displays at intervals and inform their officer what their air situation is.
- On scene the officer should take the lead in air management. Officers and team leaders must make the decision when to exit so that the team is out of the IDLH environment before a team member’s low air warning bells begin to ring. There are many factors that affect the duration of the team member’s air supply, such as: fire conditions, work rates, aerobic fitness, stress, and, having the right equipment for the assigned task.
- If members hear a low-air warning bell ringing in the IDLH environment and there is not an immediate radio report from the crew whose bell is ringing, that bell should be considered and emergency alarm until proven otherwise. The IC will activate the RIT Team until the interior crew has been assessed and problem is identified. The Incident Commander may also ask for a PAR (Personal Accountability Report).
- Interior attack crews must know where they are in the IDLH environment in relationship to the entry/exit points. They must constantly monitor changing conditions and other factors such as fire growth; smoke and heat conditions; team’s air supply; the interior layout of the structure; secondary means of egress; location of potential victims; and how the fire attack/search is progressing.
- In the event of a lost, trapped, or downed firefighter, the firefighter or that firefighter’s crew shall declare: “MAYDAY! MAYDAY! MAYDAY!” and report all available and pertinent information to the Incident Commander. The elements that must be included in the MAYDAY message include: who you are; where you are; what your situation is; and acknowledgement of the message. The LUNAR acronym can help firefighters remember the sequence of information that the Incident Commander and RIT need to launch an effective rescue operation. LUNAR stands for: Location – Unit – Name – Assignment/Air Supply – Resources Needed.
- Upon receipt of a MAYDAY radio transmission, the Incident Commander shall initiate emergency radio procedures and activate the RIT Team to access the structure, locate and extricate the firefighter(s) in trouble.
NOTE! Firefighters who repeatedly do not follow the air management policies will be subject to discipline.
3.10 - Apparatus Staffing
When responding to an emergency, it is recommended that no fewer than two personnel occupy an apparatus. A response with more is preferred. When responding to a MABAS/Mutual or Auto Aide emergency, no fewer than four personnel must occupy an apparatus other than 5362 and 5382. When responding to a MABAS emergency, all personnel must be Firefighter 1 Certified.
3.11 - Seat Belts
Seat Belts shall be worn at all times the apparatus is in motion.
3.12 - Apparatus Safety
No member shall dismount any apparatus until the apparatus has come to a complete stop and the parking brake applied. One member shall aid the driver in backing the apparatus to prevent injury or damage to persons or property. ANYTIME the apparatus is backing, a fire fighter or officer shall position himself on the driver's side so the driver has full view of the person in his mirror. The person backing the driver shall use radio communications or common hand signals to inform the driver of obstacles. This includes backing the vehicle into the fire station. The spotter shall be responsible for keeping fire fighters a safe distance from the vehicle. If only a driver exists on the apparatus and no other personnel are around, the driver may back into the station after physically getting out of the apparatus and checking for obstacles that may be in their path.
BEFORE a driver enters the cab to leave the fire station, he/she shall walk around the entire vehicle making sure no cables or cords are attached and all compartment doors are closed.
ANYTIME a vehicle is in a tight position in close proximity to other objects, the driver shall assign a spotter that positions themselves outside the vehicle to assist the driver in safely moving the vehicle.
Upon arrival at the scene of an emergency, no member shall dismount the apparatus until the apparatus has been stopped, the parking brake applied, and instructions have been given as to the duties to be performed. It shall be the responsibility of the officer or acting officer to enforce this policy.
3.13 - Fire fighter Identification:
All fire fighters have been issued I.D. tags. When fire fighters respond to any alarm on apparatus or ride the apparatus for any reason, the I.D. tag shall be taken off your helmet and attached to the command board.
3.14 - Evacuation of Buildings
Two types of evacuations shall be used to remove all Fire Department personnel from a structure or area:
Precautionary Evacuation-Used when conditions are deteriorating and the risk to fire fighters is great. Members are instructed by radio and through company officers to back out of the area or building. Members back out taking all equipment and hose lines with them. Upon evacuating company officers shall take an immediate head count of their personnel and report to the Incident Commander.
Emergency Evacuation -This evacuation takes place when collapse has occurred or imminent danger exists and represents a hazard to firefighting personnel. Emergency evacuation occurs when one (1) long blast for one minute of an air horn is made. A pause will occur and the process will be repeated two more times. Upon hearing this blast all members will immediately leave the building or area leaving tools, equipment and hose lines behind. All company officers shall take an immediate head count and report to the Incident Commander.
Only the closest engine company shall sound its air horn to signal an emergency evacuation. This shall be followed by radio transmission from the Incident Commander to all personnel. (i.e.: This is an emergency evacuation. All personnel are to exit the building or hot zone immediately.) This message shall be transmitted three times.
3.15 - Unaccounted Persons
When it is discovered that there is one or more individuals missing, this shall be reported to the Incident Commander immediately. The use of names or numbers over the radio shall be prohibited. The Incident Commander shall take appropriate action to deal with this situation.
3.16 - Facial Hair
Firefighters with any type of facial other than a mustache shall never don an SCBA
3.17 - Personal Alert Safety System (PASS)
One PASS device shall be provided for each SCBA. PASS devices shall be utilized whenever SCBAs are donned.
After the SCBA has been donned, the fire fighter shall turn the PASS device to the "on" position and ensure the audible alarm is sounding. After the alarm has been verified, the switch shall be rotated to the "auto" position.
PASS devices shall be checked during the routine inspection of SCBAs. The 9-volt batteries that are used to power the device shall be changed every 6 months. Any malfunction of the PASS devices shall be reported immediately to the equipment officer.
3.18 - Fire fighter Death or Serious Injury
Upon the death or serious injury to a fire fighter, the following procedure shall be used to document the facts and event surrounding their death or serious injury. Be advised that the incident may result in one of the following forms:
- Death at scene
- Dead upon arrival at hospital
- Alive upon arrival, but later expires
- Injuries or distress not detected at scene and member dies later, possible at home or at fire station.
The Fire Chief or the officer in charge shall be responsible to carry out this procedure.
Cause of Death:
An autopsy shall be requested where the cause of death is not clearly a traumatic injury. In all cases of fire fighter deaths a toxicology examination with a test for specific levels of carbon monoxide (CO) in the blood expressed in an exact percent shall always be requested.
Fire fighter admitted to hospital shall have a bio ad test with specific test for carbon monoxide expressed in exact percent levels. A blood sample shall also be taken and the level of alcohol in the blood established in percent level.
Agencies to Notify:
- Outagamie Sheriff’s Department
- Fire Investigation Unit
- State Fire Marshall's office
- Workers Compensation Board local office by telephone
- Public Safety Officers Benefit Program, Washington, D.C. by telephone during the next business day. Ask for the Claims Examiner at (207) 724-7620.
- Notify all other insurance companies for individual and for the Town of Greenville.
- National Fire Academy and United States Fire Administration at the following numbers:
NFA-(301) 447-1123 (301)447-1000
Statements should be gathered relating to the death or serious injury. If facts are not known then it should be clearly stated. Do not conclude what happened or interject personal opinions or emotions.
As soon as possible the book entitled, "A Procedural Guide in the Event of Death in the Line of Duty of a Member of the Volunteer Fire Service" or "The Chief Officers Guide Book" should be consulted.
Any and all equipment shall be impounded that was involved with the fire fighter's death or serious injury. This may include but not be limited to protective clothing, SCBA, radios, fire apparatus, all written reports and communication tapes.
3.19 - Power Saw Safety
The following are guidelines to be used when operating power-operated cutting saws:
- A minimum of two persons shall always be utilized when operating saws. One person shall operate the saw while the other person acts as a safety to ensure that the saw operator is not exposed to any unnecessary danger.
- All power saws shall be started on the ground to ensure that they operate prior to taking the saw to the roof.
- If visibility is low, roll the unstarted saw in front of you to the point of operations. Better for the saw to fall forward into an opening than for the fire fighter to do so.
- Start the saw only when you get to the point of operation.
- Establish and maintain a circle of safety around sawing operations. The operator and a properly equipped person guiding the operator should be the only humans within a 20 foot radius (if possible).
- Gunning the motor is not good for the saw or your grip on it. Slowly build up to maximum revolutions per minute and keep it there while you're cutting.
- When not cutting, let the motor return to idle, the clutch disengage, and the blade rotation stop. You must verify that the idling saw isn't turning the blade. Get in the habit of lowering the blade onto some woodwork nearby to ensure that the blade has stopped
- Drop starting-holding onto the cord and letting the saw drop is prohibited. Wet, inexperienced hands, lack of visibility, and instability spell disaster for a fire fighter. If you drop a started saw, it can easily ride around by itself.
- Know what you're cutting and where your feet are. The ladder should always be outside the perimeter of the cut. Otherwise you may cut yourself into the fire building, with the running saw following close behind.
- Horizontal cutting is dangerous. Cutting above waist level magnifies the danger as well as cutting above your head. Numbed hands, oscillating machinery, and fatigue multiply the probability of injury.
- With today's light weight building materials, it's sometimes difficult to tell when you're cutting not only the sheathing, but the supports with it; a stiff, numbed arm won't know. Keep a light, floating touch on the saw. Let the saw cut through the sheathing and ride over any supports it finds.
- In life or death situations, the carbide-tipped (wood cutting) blade may be used to cut an opening in thin metal facades, rather than taking the time to change to the aluminum- oxide (metal-cutting blade). But fire fighters should be aware that the teeth can come off like bullets. Full fire clothing can adequately protect the fire fighter from these projectiles.
- In cold weather, a carbide-tipped blade throws undetectable chips of frozen asphalt roof shingle under the operator's feet. On a sloped roof, these pieces can become dangerous to walk on as ball bearings, if they're not noticed and swept away.
- Full protective clothing including SCBA and eye protection shall be worn at all times.
3.20 - General Safety
All actions not specifically covered herein shall be carried out with the safety of the fire fighter and other department personnel in mind. This activity includes but not limited to operation of power equipment, hand tools, and apparatus.
3.21 - Motor Vehicle Driving
To provide a guideline for department members concerning the operation of motor vehicles either department or personal when such member is acting in official capacity for the Town of Greenville Fire Department.
3.22 - Non-Emergency
When driving department vehicles for purposes other than for response to an emergency, strict driving conduct and courtesy shall be observed. Members are aware that a department vehicle is a "moving billboard" advertising the department and how that vehicle is used and operated reflects upon the entire department.
3.23 - Emergency Driving
- Department vehicles when on an emergency response shall proceed with both visual (warning lights) and audible (sirens) warning devices operating. NOTE: A vehicle is an "Emergency Vehicle" only when BOTH visual and audible warning devices are in operation. Remember, the purpose of using both lights and sirens is to allow certain driving regulations to be suspended. Do not use the siren unnecessarily. Use both lights and siren when you are requesting the right-of-way or violating driving regulations.
- Drivers must maintain control of the vehicle at all times.
3.24 - Applicable State Statutes -Emergency Vehicle
A. Wisconsin Statute 346.03:1. The operator of an authorized emergency vehicle, when responding to an emergency call or when responding to but not upon returning from a fire alarm, may exercise the privileges set forth in this section, but subject to the conditions stated in subs 2 to 5.
2. The operator of an authorized emergency vehicle may:
- Stop, stand or park, irrespective of the provisions of this chapter;
- Proceed past a red or stop signal or stop sign, but only after slowing down as may be necessary for safe operation;
- Exceed the speed limit; (Due Regard) Not to exceed 10 MPH over posted limit.
- Disregard regulations governing direction of movement or turning in specified directions.
4. For the purpose of obtaining evidence of a speed violation, the operator of a police vehicle may exceed the speed limit without giving audible and visual signal but otherwise shall comply with the requirements of sub. 3 relative to the giving of audible and visual signals.
5. The exemptions granted the operator of an authorized emergency vehicle by this section do not relieve such operator from the duty to drive with due regard under the circumstances of his/her reckless disregard for the safety of others.
B. Town of Greenville Fire Department Policy:
When approaching any intersection or traffic signal, the emergency vehicle shall slow to a point of being able to stop if necessary. This procedure applies, regardless of the signal and right-of-way authorization.
3.25 - Use of Personal Vehicles
- Members are advised that personal vehicles used to respond to emergencies are not covered by the Township's insurance coverage.
3.26 - Speed Limit During Emergency Responses
Members operating department vehicles, during an emergency response shall exceed posted speed limits by no more than ten (10) miles per hour
3.27 - Responsibility
All members who operate motor vehicles on behalf of the Town of Greenville Fire Department are responsible for the provisions of this policy. Department officers are responsible for the enforcement of these provisions.
3.28 - Vehicle Crew Supervision
In the event of an officer not being on a fire apparatus, the person assuming the position in the front passenger seat will take on the responsibility for crew safety, supervision and communications. A senior fire fighter shall be the selective choice.
3.29 - Ambulance Utilization
Ambulance Use -In the event of a working fire or suspected dangerous environment, the Incident Commander shall immediately notify the Communications Center to dispatch an Advance Life-Support ambulance to the scene. The Incident Commander shall locate the ambulance in a designated Rest and Rehabilitation area and have personnel monitored for health and safety wellness on a regular basis.
3.30 - Rest and Rehabilitation
Rest and Rehabilitation Area -On every working alarm, the Incident Commander shall establish a rest and rehabilitation area equipped with EMS personnel and fluid replacement items. The area shall be located a safe distance away from emergency operations. Water replacement is recommended. Caffeine products and fatty foods are discouraged as nourishment. As a guideline, fire fighters should be sent to the rest and rehabilitation area after consuming two SCBA bottles of air or anytime the fire fighters exhibit signs and symptoms of exhaustion. The first responders shall closely monitor environmental conditions and may replace fire fighters more frequently during heat exhaustion conditions.
3.31 - Large Diameter Hose
The following procedures shall be utilized when handling LDH:
A. SLOWLY charge LDH lines!
B. Work in pairs when lifting, draining or moving LDH.
C. When loading LDH on the apparatus and the vehicle is moving, follow these procedures:
- Drive the apparatus in a forward direction only with the hose alongside the vehicle.
- A safety person shall walk to the rear of the vehicle (on the driver's side) and signal the driver to move ahead slowly.
- Personnel in the hose bed shall not stand and should be limited to two people.
- No fire fighters shall occupy the tailboard when the apparatus is moving.
- The safety person shall stop the driver as necessary to properly control the hose loading.
- 1 -2 fire fighters will walk behind the vehicle to feed hose to the personnel in the hose bed.
3.32 - Conducting Training Fires
The purpose of this procedure is to establish standard guidelines for conducting structural training fires while complying with NFPA Standard 1403. All other Greenville Fire Department procedures will also apply to training fires where applicable.
The objective of a training fire is to provide realistic fire ground training under actual fire conditions for recruit and uninformed firefighters while providing high levels of safety and minimizing risk to firefighters.
Training fires will be designed to minimize the risk and to control the fire conditions so that firefighters are not unnecessarily exposed to hazards or injuries.
Training fires present the same hazards as those encountered at actual field incidents. The Incident Command System employed at actual fire incidents will be Standard Operating Procedure at all structural training fires.
Command-One officer on the scene shall be designated as "Command" and will assume the Command functions.
A Command Post shall be established and positioned to afford maximum visibility of the structure, operating companies and fire conditions.
Communications-Command is responsible for establishing radio communications with each company officer or training officer involved in the drill. Channel assignment must be coordinated with Dispatch and Deployment and all companies involved. Companies operating at the training fire will continuously monitor the assigned radio channel. All radios will be checked for proper functioning and correct channel prior to initiating training fire operations.
Sectors-To eliminate confusion, and provide adequate scene control, all personnel operating within the foreground perimeter shall operate under the direction of a operations officer. The foreground perimeter shall be defined as the hazardous area surrounding the burn structure and shall be determined by Command following guidelines stated in Fireground Safety.
The following sectors shall be established on all structural training fires.
- Interior - Company or training officer directing interior suppression activities.
- Exposure - Provide manned, charged hose line positioned to protect exposed property. More than one hose line (and therefore, more than one sector) may be required, depending on the exposures present.
- Rescue - Provide a manned, charged back-up line for each fire attack team, in position to assist in fire extinguishments and rescue of interior personnel. Experienced firefighting personnel will man this sector and each Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC) shall consist of a minimum of three firefighters. A company officer shall be in charge of each RIC unit. There shall be one rescue (RIC) team for each fire attack team. The RIC will be positioned in a ready state near the exterior point of entry.
- Rehab - All personnel not assigned to other sectors will be under the direction of Rehab. Rehab area will be established in a location that reduces congestion around the fire building.
- Safety - The Safety Officer (or a safety representative) will be in attendance at all structural training fires and will assume safety sector responsibilities. The safety sector will monitor personnel and fire conditions, and work with Command to ensure all safety procedures are complied with, and that risk to personnel is minimized.
Other sectors may be established as necessary to control training/fire control Sectors – operations and to minimize risk to firefighters.
The Safety Officer shall have full authority to intervene and control or stop any aspect of the operations with the backing of Command when in his/her judgment; a potential or real risk to personnel exists. He/she will not be assigned other duties that would distract from his/her safety responsibilities.
Additional Safety Officers may be assigned to the training fire if the conditions dictate. Responsibilities of the Safety Officer(s) will include but not be limited to the prevention of unsafe acts and elimination of unsafe conditions.
Company officers acting as instructors will be responsible for the direct supervision of assigned students and their safety and welfare, including the prevention of unsafe acts and the elimination of unsafe conditions.
Fire department personnel will not be permitted to operate on the roof during active fire conditions in the building.
The number of personnel involved in training fires often exceeds the number normally assigned at actual incidents. To reduce risk, and assist with scene management, training fire participants shall be formed into individual companies consisting of no more than four (4) members and supervised by a company officer.
Exposing recruit firefighters to structural training fires presents special safety considerations. All sector officers should anticipate that a recruit firefighter's exposure to interior fire conditions might be less than orderly. To reduce the possibility of injury, the span of control for interior operations shall not exceed two recruits for each company or training officer.
All firefighters involved in structural training fires shall have received training to meet the performance objectives of Firefighter 1, NFPA 1001 in:
- Forcible Entry
- Protective Breathing Apparatus
- Fire Hose, Nozzles and Appliances
- Fire Streams
- Rescue Safety
- Fire Behavior
No personnel shall be permitted to act as a victim(s) during live training fires.
To reinforce safety procedures, a protective clothing and equipment inspection shall be conducted on all firefighters immediately prior to and after engaging in suppression activities. The inspection shall insure that all clothing and equipment is serviceable and worn in a manner to provide the maximum personal protection.
The Safety Officer will be responsible for completing the safety checklist prior to initiating the training exercise.
One officer on the scene shall be designated as an accountability officer and will assume the accountability functions.
To enhance accountability and to improve tracking of firefighters in the Hot Zone, the "PASSPORT" system shall be used. Personnel Accountability Report or "PAR" shall be used at the following accountability benchmarks:
- Upon entering the structure
- Any report of a trapped or missing firefighter
- By all crews reporting an "All Clear"
- At a report of fire under control
- Upon exiting the structure
- Sudden hazardous event
- Change from offensive to defensive strategy
- At the discretion of Command
Passports will remain with the designated- accountability officer near the "point of entry" to the Hot Zone. Upon entry, crews will turn in their PASSPORT. Upon exit, the crew must retrieve their PASSPORT. The accountability status board will contain only the PASSPORTS of those crews in the Hot Zone.
Access to the training fire building will be controlled by fire line tape that shall be stretched around the fire-building perimeter.
Personnel within this perimeter may be permitted to operate with the SCBA face piece removed.
All other protective clothing items shall be in place.
All personnel not wearing appropriate protective clothing and equipment shall remain outside the fire line perimeter.
Required Fire Equipment and Personnel- Two separate sources of hydrant water supply shall be established (two Engine Companies minimum). The water supply shall be test flowed by the forward pumper to insure adequate water supply of a minimum of 500 gallons per minute.
One pumper shall supply all fire attack hose lines. A second pumper shall supply the RIC unit backup hose lines. All hose lines will be flow tested to confirm a minimum of 95 gpm.
An on-duty chief officer designated by the Training staff shall be on scene to supervise the overall operation.
A utility truck and a rescue shall be on scene prior to the start of the training fire.
Access to the scene shall be controlled to permit emergency access to and from the site.
All apparatus will be appropriately placed or staged in accordance with the Greenville Fire Department Standard Operating Procedures.
- Starting the Fire- The use of flammable or combustible liquids, as defined in NFPA-30, shall be prohibited for use in live fire training evolutions. Only Class A materials shall be used in live fire training. The ignition process will be conducted under the direct supervision of the Safety Officer. Command shall assign an experienced firefighter to become "FIRESTARTER." It is the responsibility of the FIRESTARTER to initially ignite the fire. FIRESTARTER shall also regulate the fuel load for each evolution to maintain a tenable atmosphere inside the training fire rooms. The RIC unit shall be in place with a charged hose line prior to ignition.
- Preplanning- The officer in charge of the drill will conduct an initial inspection of the training fire site. If the building appears acceptable, he/she will make an appointment with the Safety Officer to inspect the building.
Single story structures shall always be considered first choice when selecting training in interior firefighting operations. Two story structures will only be considered when the building has been thoroughly inspected by the Safety Officer and the Command officer. Both officers must agree that the building is structurally sound for training burns. Adequate egress/access points on the second floor must be readily available.
The officer coordinating the training fire will inspect the building with the Safety Officer. The building must meet fire safety and structural integrity criteria before approval to conduct a training fire is given by the Safety Officer. The Safety Officer shall have full authority to deny approval if the building is determined unsafe. Buildings incapable of withstanding exposure to fire conditions shall not be utilized. Buildings with bars on windows or doors that cannot be removed shall not be utilized.
Traffic control will also be a major factor for consideration in approving live structural training fires. Approval will not be given where traffic cannot be effectively controlled or re-routed.
Building Preparation- Obtaining Permission and Permits-The training officer coordinating the live structure burn shall be responsible for obtaining all releases, permits and other approvals and releases relating to the training fire. They shall include, but not necessarily be limited to the following:
- Confirm a clear title on the property.
- Written permission from the building owner.
- Verify ownership of the selected building.
- Obtain documented proof of cancellation of insurance on the selected building.
- Obtain permission to burn from Air Quality Control.
- Obtain approval from immediate supervisor.
- Obtain approval of Safety Officer.
- Insure that an approved asbestos removal contractor removes all forms of asbestos deemed hazardous to personnel.
Site Preparation- The following preparations will be made prior to conducting a training fire in a structure:
- Confirm that utility service (gas and electric, etc.) has been disconnected.
- All debris will be cleared from entrances and exits and from the immediate exterior area.
- At least two points of egress shall be provided in all training fire structures.
- All interior contents shall be arranged to permit free access to and egress from all rooms.
- No additional combustible, or smoke generating substance other than wood pallets or other Class A materials will be added to any structure .The fire load shall be conservative.
- Low-density combustible fiberboard and unconventional interior finishes shall be removed.
- All windows and doors to be used for egress or emergency evacuation will be checked for and made capable of unrestricted opening.
- Structures will be pre-vented at the roof. The roof vent opening may be covered with an appropriate material. A metal cable will be attached to prevent burn-through and the cable will be extended to the ground. The vent cover will be removed at an appropriate time during fire attack operations to permit ventilation and prevent flashover or back draft.
- Heavy roof, attic, or ceiling equipment or fixtures, etc., shall be removed.
- Pre-training fire checklist shall be completed.
Attack Plan- The officer in charge shall develop an attack plan based upon information obtained during the pre-plan and building preparation stages.
The Attack Plan shall specify:
- Points of ignition
- Amount of fire load
- Position of entry attack lines
- Position of RIC units
- A Rescue Plan
All personnel involved in the drill shall be instructed on each element of the attack plan prior to igniting the structure and shall receive a walk through briefing of the building prior to each training fire. An evacuation plan and signal shall be reviewed and agreed upon.
Re Use of Live Training Fire Building- The building will be re-inspected by the Safety Officer for structural integrity and for any hazards or unsafe conditions prior to each additional training fire in the structure.
Notification of Training Fire Activities- Prior to conducting structural training fires, the following notification must be made.
Dispatch & Deployment—location, time, type of burn, companies being utilized.
On-duty Public Information Officer (PIO)
Airport Fire(Depending on location)
Air Quality Control
Occupants of adjoining property
Air Traffic Control Tower(Depending on location)
Restricted Areas- Training fires are not permitted in the following locations:
Drills that draw opposition from neighbors or other members of the community should be discontinued.
Records and Reports- The following records and reports shall be maintained on all live fire training for two years:
- An accounting of the activities conducted.
- Roll call of all participants, including the Safety Officer and other support personnel.
- Documentation of unusual conditions or events encountered.
- Any injuries and treatment provided.
- Copy of "Transfer of Authority" form signed by property owner.
- Copies of all permits, releases or other documents relating to the training fire.
- Records of critiques.
Pre-Training Fire Checklist:
- On-site building inspection by Safety Officer
- Building structure was analyzed for structural integrity
- Exposures evaluated
- Special Hazards considered
- Access to site and all sides of building adequate
- Water supply from two hydrants/adequate
- Street traffic blockage considered
- Exterior debris, trees, and brush cleared
- Two points of egress/exits available
- Windows/doors unrestricted
- Interior access unobstructed; uncomplicated
- Ceiling fixtures removed
- Interior combustibles fire load reasonable/conservative
- Permits/permission and other documentation obtained
- Evidence of prerequisite training (NFPA 1001) obtained for students from outside agencies
- Adjacent property owners notified
- All utilities disconnected
- Heavy attic or roof objects removed
- Porches, steps, or railing made safe
- Notifications made
On-Site Training Fire Operations Checklist:
- Adequate fire apparatus on site
- ALS company on-scene
- Rescue on-scene
- Rehab on-scene
- Utility truck on-scene
- Two separate hydrant water sources secured
- Pumpers flow tested for a minimum 500 gpm water supply
- Roof pre-vented with adequate opening
- Vent covers with cable to ground
- R1C unit staffed by minimum of three firefighters
- One backup RJC unit in place (with hose line) for each fire attack entry team
- Attack lines from one pumper, RJC lines from a separate pumper
- Fire attack entry and RJC unit fully "suited up" in protective equipment, PASS unit and SCBA checked for proper functioning
- Company officers in charge of each entry and RIC unit
- Specific plan of operation established, understood by all
- Walk through briefing conducted for all crews
- Rescue plan established, understood by all
- Emergency evacuation plan and signal determined and agreed upon
- Fire Line tapes in place
- Provision for onsite sanitary facilities/"Porta Jon," etc.
- Accountability Officer established
Post Training Fire Checklist
- All personnel accounted for
- Equipment and clothing checked for damage
- Remaining, fires overhauled/controlled
- Critique conducted
- Total extinguishments completed at end of training operations
- Copy of "Transfer of Authority" form signed by building owner
- Building secured or made safe
- Bunker gear and equipment decontaminated